The living conditions of former nomads in the arid mountain and desert regions of Morocco have been subject to dramatic change during the last decades. Whereas "traditional" forms of mobile livestock production continue to exist, technologies such as trucks and mobile telephones have entered everyday "nomadic" life. And whereas some families have built up prospering enterprises, extending their scope of action right into the European Union, many of the younger generation try to survive as temporary migrant workers in the growing Moroccan cities. For the people involved, these new dynamics imply new opportunities, but also entail risks, becoming manifest, for example, in new patterns of social polarization. Among the former nomads, families that have undergone amazing social rise can be found directly next door to households suffering from severe poverty and insecurity. These heterogeneous livelihoods constitute the focal point of the present study. Starting from local case studies, the book analyzes livelihood strategies, resource entitlements and (new) forms of spatial mobility. Focusing on problems of socio-economic differentiation and polarization, it investigates the ways in which multiple factors interrelate to constitute new complex livelihoods, which are increasingly de-territorialized. Based on two years of in-depth fieldwork, the study combines both quantitative and qualitative ways to analyze social change. Examining how socio-economic transformation shapes local living conditions in rural North Africa, the book finally shows how seemingly peripheral "nomadic" regions are increasingly integrated into a globalizing world economy.