What is the relationship between science and politics in the Nordic welfare states? What role have experts played in the development of the Nordic model? Who were the experts? Based on in-depth analysis of the historical facts of the welfare states in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden in the 20th century, this volume offers a multifaceted analysis of the interplay between science, experts, politicians, and institutions in policy areas, such as public health, unemployment insurance, child psychiatry, alcohol research, and social insurance. The book brings together empirically grounded studies on the interplay between science and politics, the theoretical perspectives adopted in different political contexts, and the relationship between the internal dynamics of disciplines and research environments.