Mention of monarchy in the English speaking world will very likely lead people to think about the British example. Fewer would probably first bring to mind the current Danish or Monegasque monarchs, or think of the Dalai Lama let alone the Kabaka of Buganda, though some may want to consider what will be said about the other European monarchs (such as in Spain, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, not to ignore Monaco) the Saudi or other present Muslim Kings (there are several, from Morocco to Malaysia) and even the Mikado of Japan. In one way then this book will accept convention and focus mainly on the British monarchy. Can we take it for granted that we know what defines monarchy? We shall see that at different ages and across the world there have been different varieties of monarchy - a composite word which means (or is drawn from parts that mean): rule (the 'arch' particle) by a single person or one (the 'mon' particle). Most have been hereditary - and perhaps this is a truly defining characteristic of a monarchy - though we shall see that some people called kings have been elected, in the two or three cases known the election being by an elite group of nobles or other leaders and not by the public at large. If being a monarch is something inherited, then often it is implied or even proclaimed that the inheritance is ultimately derived from Divine authority. Is a chieftain of a small national group or tribe, especially if his or hers is an inherited status, a monarch? The question will not be settled here by hard and fast rules; rather, the answer will be left to 'develop' through the exploration and discussion of examples. Monarchs have tried to harness media; sometimes to use them, in other instances to muzzle others' uses of them. Monarchs need to use media not just to influence the life of their own society internally but also to influence how they are perceived and felt about externally. Thus we have examples of positive communication in which envoys take verbal messages or extravagant presents back to their own rulers; we also have many examples of negative communication in which explorers, envoys, missionaries or other visitors take home stories that will cultivate hostility. Sometimes such hostility is in what we may nowadays consider a good cause, such as an intention to end slavery; other times hostilities are based in greed or ambition. Whatever the reasons for hostilities, monarchs (just like other non-monarchist regimes) have it in their best interests to control their external reputations, and they have to control the message processes through which theses reputations are communicated. This may mean that we can see a homegoing missionary as a "medium", or the messages he or she carries as "media".